1. Bhasin S, Basaria S. Diagnosis and treatment of hypogonadism in men. Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2011;25(2):251–270. doi:10.1016/j.beem.2010.12.002.
  2. Feldman HA, Longcope C, Derby CA, et al. Age trends in the level of serum testosterone and other hormones in middle-aged men: longitudinal results from the Massachusetts male aging study. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2002;87(2):589–598. doi:10.1210/jcem.87.2.8201.
  3. Harman SM, Metter EJ, Tobin JD, Pearson J, Blackman MR, Blackman MR. Longitudinal effects of aging on serum total and free testosterone levels in healthy men. Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2001;86(2):724–731. doi:10.1210/jcem.86.2.7219.
  4. Hak AE, Witteman JCM, de Jong FH, Geerlings MI, Hofman A, Pols HAP. Low levels of endogenous androgens increase the risk of atherosclerosis in elderly men: the Rotterdam study. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2002;87(8):3632–3639. doi:10.1210/jcem.87.8.8762.
  5. Shores MM, Matsumoto AM, Sloan KL, Kivlahan DR. Low serum testosterone and mortality in male veterans. Arch Intern Med. 2006;166(15):1660–1665. doi:10.1001/archinte.166.15.1660.
  6. Laughlin GA, Barrett-Connor E, Bergstrom J. Low Serum Testosterone and Mortality in Older Men. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2008;93(1):68–75. doi:10.1210/jc.2007-1792.
  7. Ferrucci L, Maggio M, Bandinelli S, et al. Low testosterone levels and the risk of anemia in older men and women. Arch Intern Med. 2006;166(13):1380–1388. doi:10.1001/archinte.166.13.1380.
  8. Ding EL, Song Y, Malik VS, Liu S. Sex differences of endogenous sex hormones and risk of type 2 diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis. JAMA. 2006;295(11):1288–1299.
  9. Shores MM, Sloan KL, Matsumoto AM, Moceri VM, Felker B, Kivlahan DR. Increased incidence of diagnosed depressive illness in hypogonadal older men. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2004;61(2):162–167. doi:10.1001/archpsyc.61.2.162.
  10. Malkin CJ, Pugh PJ, Jones RD, Jones TH, Channer KS. Testosterone as a protective factor against atherosclerosis–immunomodulation and influence upon plaque development and stability. J Endocrinol. 2003;178(3):373–380.
  11. Kapoor D. Testosterone replacement therapy improves insulin resistance, glycaemic control, visceral adiposity and hypercholesterolaemia in hypogonadal men with type 2 diabetes. European Journal of Endocrinology. 2006;154(6):899–906. doi:10.1530/eje.1.02166.
  12. Tenover JL. The androgen-deficient aging male: current treatment options. Rev Urol. 2003;5 Suppl 1:S22–8.
  13. Isidori AM, Giannetta E, Greco EA, et al. Effects of testosterone on body composition, bone metabolism and serum lipid profile in middle-aged men: a meta-analysis. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2005;63(3):280–293. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2265.2005.02339.x.
  14. Saad F, Grahl AS, Aversa A, et al. Effects of testosterone on erectile function: implications for the therapy of erectile dysfunction. BJU Int. 2007;99(5):988–992. doi:10.1111/j.1464-410X.2007.06756.x.
  15. Shabsigh R, Kaufman JM, Steidle C, Padma-Nathan H. Randomized study of testosterone gel as adjunctive theray to sildenafile in hypogonadal men with erectile dysfunction who do not respond to sildenafil alone. J Urol. 2004;172(2):658–663. doi:10.1097/01.ju.0000132389.97804.d7.
  16. Cooper MA, Ritchie EC. Testosterone replacement therapy for anxiety. Am J Psychiatry. 2000;157(11):1884.
  17. Alexander GM, Swerdloff RS, Wang C, et al. Androgen–Behavior Correlations in Hypogonadal Men and Eugonadal Men. Horm Behav. 1997;31(2):110–119. doi:10.1006/hbeh.1997.1372.
  18. Gouras GK, Xu H, Gross RS, et al. Testosterone reduces neuronal secretion of Alzheimer’s beta-amyloid peptides. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2000;97(3):1202–1205. doi:10.2307/121630.
  19. Lu PH, Masterman DA, Mulnard R, et al. Effects of testosterone on cognition and mood in male patients with mild Alzheimer disease and healthy elderly men. Arch Neurol. 2006;63(2):177–185. doi:10.1001/archneur.63.2.nct50002.
  20. Huggins C, Hodges CV. Studies on prostatic cancer. Cancer research. 1941;1:v297.
  21. C H, RE S, Jr, CV H. Studies on prostatic cancer: Ii. the effects of castration on advanced carcinoma of the prostate gland. Archives of Surgery. 1941;43(2):209–223. doi:10.1001/archsurg.1941.01210140043004.
  22. Hormones E, Prostate Cancer Collaborative Group. Endogenous Sex Hormones and Prostate Cancer: A Collaborative Analysis of 18 Prospective Studies. JNCI Journal of the National Cancer Institute. 2008;100(3):170–183. doi:10.1093/jnci/djm323.
  23. Morgentaler A. Testosterone and Prostate Cancer: An Historical Perspective on a Modern Myth. European Urology. 2006;50(5):935–939. doi:10.1016/j.eururo.2006.06.034.
  24. Hoffman MA, DeWolf WC, Morgentaler A. Is low serum free testosterone a marker for high grade prostate cancer? J Urol. 2000;163(3):824–827.
  25. Gould DC, Kirby RS. Testosterone replacement therapy for late onset hypogonadism: what is the risk of inducing prostate cancer? Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis. 2005;9(1):14–18. doi:10.1038/sj.pcan.4500839.
  26. Rhoden EL, Morgentaler A. Testosterone replacement therapy in hypogonadal men at high risk for prostate cancer: results of 1 year of treatment in men with prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia. J Urol. 2003;170(6 Pt 1):2348–2351. doi:10.1097/01.ju.0000091104.71869.8e.
  27. Vigen R. Association of Testosterone Therapy With Mortality, Myocardial Infarction, and Stroke in Men With Low Testosterone Levels. JAMA. 2013;310(17):1829. doi:10.1001/jama.2013.280386.
  28. Finkle WD, Greenland S, Ridgeway GK, et al. Increased Risk of Non-Fatal Myocardial Infarction Following Testosterone Therapy Prescription in Men. Gong Y, ed. PLoS ONE. 2014;9(1):e85805. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0085805.s002.
  29. Coviello AD, Matsumoto AM, Bremner WJ, et al. Low-dose human chorionic gonadotropin maintains intratesticular testosterone in normal men with testosterone-induced gonadotropin suppression. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2005;90(5):2595–2602. doi:10.1210/jc.2004-0802.